Top Tourist Attractions in Harrisburg: Travel Guide Pennsylvania

Top Tourist Attractions in Harrisburg: Travel Guide Pennsylvania

Real Estate Tips:
Keep in mind that there are investment opportunities past just traditional stocks and bonds. Commodities are an asset class with both risks and rewards but can provide hedges against inflation. Also look at real estate income trusts to invest into the real estate market without being tied to individual pieces of property. Keep in mind that there are investment opportunities past just traditional stocks and bonds. Commodities are an asset class with both risks and rewards but can provide hedges against inflation. Also look at real estate income trusts to invest into the real estate market without being tied to individual pieces of property.

3 Popular Attractions In Pennsylvania

  • Bushkill Falls: A series of eight waterfalls located in the Pocono Mountains in Pennsylvania.
  • Pennsylvania Facts:

    • In 1913 the first automobile service station opened in Pittsburgh.
    • Originally Bellefonte, a town now with a population of 5,000, was once considered to be Pennsylvania’s capital. But Harrisburg was chosen because of the easy navigation on the Susquehanna River.
    • State Slogan: Pursue Your Happiness On March 8, 2016, it was declared that whoever you are, no matter what you love to do, know that happiness is Pennsylvania’s keystone. It always has been. It lives in our historic treasures. Our dynamic urban spaces. Our greater-than-great outdoors. Life. Liberty. The pursuit of happiness. In Pennsylvania, we hold these truths to be as self-evident today as they were in 1776.
    • State Fossil: Phacops Rana A water animal measuring just one to four inches, the Phacops Rana lived and left its mark Pennsylvania more than 250 million years ago. A science class of elementary school students brought this tiny invertebrate to the attention of the House of Representatives. Designated December 5, 1988

    Pennsylvania

    Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
    Nickname(s):

    Keystone State;[1] Quaker State

    Motto(s):

    Virtue, Liberty and Independence

    Anthem:Pennsylvania

    Map of the United States with Pennsylvania highlighted

    Map of the United States with Pennsylvania highlighted

    Country United States
    Before statehood Province of Pennsylvania
    Admitted to the Union December 12, 1787 (2nd)
    Capital Harrisburg
    Largest city Philadelphia
    Largest metro and urban areas Delaware Valley
    Governor Tom Wolf (D)
    Lieutenant Governor John Fetterman (D)
    Legislature General Assembly
    Upper house State Senate
    Lower house House of Representatives
    Judiciary Supreme Court of Pennsylvania
    U.S. senators Bob Casey Jr. (D)

    Pat Toomey (R)
    U.S. House delegation 9 Democrats

    9 Republicans (list)
    •Total 46,055sqmi (119,283km2)
    •Land 44,816.61sqmi (116,074km2)
    •Water 1,239sqmi (3,208km2) 2.7%
    •Rank 33rd
    •Length 170mi (273km)
    •Width 283mi (455km)
    Elevation 1,100ft (340m)
    Highestelevation

    3,213ft (979m)
    Lowestelevation

    0ft (0m)
    •Total 13,011,844
    •Rank 5th
    •Density 290/sqmi (112/km2)
    •Rank 9th
    Median household income $59,195[4]
    •Income rank 23rd
    Demonym(s) Pennsylvanian
    Official language None
    Spoken language English 90.15%

    Spanish 4.09%

    German (including Pennsylvania Dutch) 0.87%

    Chinese 0.47%

    Italian 0.43%[6]
    Time zone UTC−05:00 (Eastern)
    •Summer (DST) UTC−04:00 (EDT)
    USPS abbreviation

    PA

    ISO 3166 code US-PA
    Traditional abbreviation Pa., Penn., Penna.
    Latitude 39°43′ to 42°16′ N
    Longitude 74°41′ to 80°31′ W
    Website www.pa.gov

    Pennsylvania ( PEN-səl-VAY-nee-ə; Pennsylvania German: Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a U.S. state spanning the Mid-Atlantic, Northeastern, and Appalachian regions of the United States. It borders Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, and New Jersey to the east.

    Pennsylvania is the fifth-most populous state in the United States with over 13 million residents as of 2020.[5] It is the 33rd-largest state by area and it ranks ninth among all states in population density. Nearly half the population (6.09 million) is concentrated in the southeastern Delaware Valley metropolitan area, centered around Philadelphia, the state's largest and nation's sixth most populous city; another one-third of the state's residents live in Greater Pittsburgh (2.37 million) in the southwest. Pennsylvania's three largest cities are Philadelphia (1.6 million), Pittsburgh (302,971), and Allentown (125,845). Other major cities include Erie, Reading, Bethlehem, and Scranton. The state capital is Harrisburg.

    Pennsylvania's geography is highly diverse: the Appalachian Mountains run through its center, while the Allegheny and Pocono Mountains span much of the northeast; close to 60% of the state is forested. While it has only 140 miles (225km) of waterfront along Lake Erie and the Delaware River,[8] Pennsylvania has more navigable rivers than any other state, including the Delaware, Ohio, and Pine Creek.

    Pennsylvania was one of the thirteen British colonies that would eventually form the United States. It was founded in 1681 through royal land grant to William Penn, son of the state's namesake; the southeast portion was once part of the colony of New Sweden. Established as a haven for religious and political tolerance, the Province of Pennsylvania was noteworthy for its relatively peaceful relations with native tribes, innovative government system, and religious pluralism. Pennsylvania's governing framework inspired the U.S. Constitution, which, along with the Declaration of Independence, was drafted in Independence Hall in Philadelphia; the city also hosted the first and second Constitutional Convention that led the American Revolution. Pennsylvania became the second state to ratify the Constitution on December 12, 1787.[9]

    History[edit]

    Indigenous settlement[edit]

    Pennsylvania's history of human habitation extends to thousands of years before the foundation of the colonial Province of Pennsylvania in 1681. Archaeologists generally believe that the first settlement of the Americas occurred at least 15,000 years ago during the last glacial period, though it is unclear when humans first entered the area known as Pennsylvania. There is an open debate in the archaeological community regarding when the ancestors of Native Americans expanded across the two continents down to the tip of South America, with possibilities ranging between 30,000 and 10,500 years ago.[10] The Meadowcroft Rockshelter contains the earliest known signs of human activity in Pennsylvania, and perhaps all of North America,[11] as it contains the remains of a civilization that existed over 10,000 years ago and possibly pre-dated the Clovis culture.[12][11] By 1000 C.E., in contrast to their nomadic hunter-gatherer ancestors, the native population of Pennsylvania had developed agricultural techniques and a mixed food economy.[13]

    By the time that European colonization of the Americas began, several Native American tribes inhabited the region.[12] The Lenape spoke an Algonquian language, and inhabited an area known as the Lenapehoking, which was mostly made up of the state of New Jersey, but incorporated a lot of surrounding area, including eastern Pennsylvania. Their territory ended somewhere between the Delaware River and Susquehanna rivers within the state bounds. The Susquehannock spoke an Iroquoian language and held a region spanning from New York to West Virginia, that went from the area surrounding the Susquehanna River all the way to the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers (about level with modern-day Pittsburgh).[14] European disease and constant warfare with several neighbors and groups of Europeans weakened these tribes, and they were grossly outpaced financially as the Hurons and Iroquois blocked them from proceeding into Ohio during the Beaver Wars. As they lost numbers and land, they abandoned much of their western territory and moved closer to the Susquehanna River and the Iroquois and Mohawk to the north. Northwest of the Allegheny River was the Iroquoian Petun,[15] known mostly for their vast Tobacco plantations, although this is believed to be complete fabrication.[16] They were fragmented into three groups during the Beaver Wars—the Petun of New York, the Wyandot of Ohio and the Tiontatecaga of the Kanawha River in southern West Virginia. South of the Allegheny River was, allegedly, a nation existed known as the Calicua.[17] They may have been the same as the Monongahela Culture and very little is known about them, except that they were probably a Siouan culture. Archaeological sites from this time in this region are scarce and the very few historical sources even mention them—most of these sources only coming from those who met Calicua traders further east on the Allegheny River.

    17th century[edit]

    The Dutch and the English each claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America.[18][19][20] The Dutch were the first to take possession.[20]

    By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware.[21] In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania) but settled few colonists there.[22][23]

    On March 12, 1664, King Charles II of England gave James, Duke of York a grant that incorporated all lands included in the original Virginia Company of Plymouth Grant plus other lands. This grant was in conflict with the Dutch claim for New Netherland, which included parts of today's Pennsylvania.[24]

    On June 24, 1664, the Duke of York sold the portion of his large grant that included present-day New Jersey to John Berkeley and George Carteret for a proprietary colony. The land was not yet in British possession, but the sale boxed in the portion of New Netherland on the West side of the Delaware River. The British conquest of New Netherland began on August 29, 1664, when New Amsterdam was coerced to surrender while facing cannons on British ships in New York Harbor.[25][26] This conquest continued, and was completed in October 1664, when the British captured Fort Casimir in what today is New Castle, Delaware.

    The Peace of Breda between England, France and the Netherlands confirmed the English conquest on July 21, 1667,[27][28] although there were temporary reversions.

    On September 12, 1672, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch re-conquered New York Colony/New Amsterdam, establishing three County Courts, which went on to become original Counties in present-day Delaware and Pennsylvania. The one that later transferred to Pennsylvania was Upland.[29] This was partially reversed on February 9, 1674, when the Treaty of Westminster ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War, and reverted all political situations to the status quo ante bellum. The British retained the Dutch Counties with their Dutch names.[30] By June 11, 1674, New York reasserted control over the outlying colonies, including Upland, but the names started to be changed to British names by November 11, 1674.[31] Upland was partitioned on November 12, 1674, producing the general outline of the current border between Pennsylvania and Delaware.[32]

    On February 28, 1681, Charles II granted a land charter[33] to William Penn to repay a debt of £16,000[34] (around £2,100,000 in 2008, adjusting for retail inflation)[35] owed to William's father, Admiral William Penn. This was one of the largest land grants to an individual in history.[36] The King named it Pennsylvania (literally “Penn's Woods”) in honor of Admiral Penn; the Admiral's son who proposed that the land be called New Wales and then, after objections, Sylvania (from the Latin silva: “forest, woods”), was embarrassed at the change from the latter proposed form, fearing that people would think he had named it after himself, but King Charles would not rename the grant.[37] Penn established a government with two innovations that were much copied in the New World: the county commission and freedom of religious conviction.[36]

    What had been Upland on what became the Pennsylvania side of the Pennsylvania-Delaware Border was renamed as Chester County when Pennsylvania instituted their colonial governments on March 4, 1681.[38][39] The Quaker leader William Penn had signed a peace treaty with Tammany, leader of the Delaware tribe, beginning a long period of friendly relations between the Quakers and the Indians.[40] Additional treaties between Quakers and other tribes followed. The treaty of William Penn was never violated.[41][42][43]

    18th century[edit]

    Between 1730 and when it was shut down by Parliament with the Currency Act of 1764, the Pennsylvania Colony made its own paper money to account for the shortage of actual gold and silver. The paper money was called Colonial Scrip. The Colony issued “bills of credit”, which were as good as gold or silver coins because of their legal tender status. Since they were issued by the government and not a banking institution, it was an interest-free proposition, largely defraying the expense of the government and therefore taxation of the people. It also promoted general employment and prosperity, since the Government used discretion and did not issue too much to inflate the currency. Benjamin Franklin had a hand in creating this currency, of which he said its utility was never to be disputed, and it also met with the “cautious approval” of Adam Smith.[44]

    James Smith wrote that in 1763, “the Indians again commenced hostilities, and were busily engaged in killing and scalping the frontier inhabitants in various parts of Pennsylvania.” Further, “This state was then a Quaker government, and at the first of this war the frontiers received no assistance from the state.”[45] The ensuing hostilities became known as Pontiac's War.

    After the Stamp Act Congress of 1765, Delegate John Dickinson of Philadelphia wrote the Declaration of Rights and Grievances. The Congress was the first meeting of the Thirteen Colonies, called at the request of the Massachusetts Assembly, but only nine colonies sent delegates.[46] Dickinson then wrote Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, To the Inhabitants of the British Colonies, which were published in the Pennsylvania Chronicle between December 2, 1767, and February 15, 1768.[47]

    When the Founding Fathers of the United States convened in Philadelphia in 1774, 12 colonies sent representatives to the First Continental Congress.[48] The Second Continental Congress, which also met in Philadelphia (in May 1775), drew up and signed the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia,[49] but when that city was captured by the British, the Continental Congress escaped westward, meeting at the Lancaster courthouse on Saturday, September 27, 1777, and then to York. There they and its primary author, John Dickinson, drew up the Articles of Confederation that formed 13 independent States[50] into a new union. Later, the Constitution was written, and Philadelphia was once again chosen to be cradle to the new American Union.[51] The Constitution was drafted and signed at the Pennsylvania State House, now known as Independence Hall, and the same building where the Declaration of Independence was signed.[52]

    Pennsylvania became the second state to ratify the U.S. Constitution on December 12, 1787,[53] five days after Delaware became the first. At the time it was the most ethnically and religiously diverse of the thirteen States. Because one-third of Pennsylvania's population spoke the German language, the Constitution was presented in German to include those citizens in the discussion. Reverend Frederick Muhlenberg acted as the chairman of the state's ratifying convention.[54]

    The University of Pennsylvania was founded by Benjamin Franklin in 1740, becoming one of the nine colonial colleges and the first college established in the state.[55]Dickinson College of Carlisle was the first college founded after the States united.[55] Established in 1773, the college was ratified five days after the Treaty of Paris on September 9, 1783. The school was founded by Benjamin Rush and named after John Dickinson.

    For half a century, the Pennsylvania General Assembly met at various places in the general Philadelphia area before starting to meet regularly in Independence Hall in downtown Philadelphia for 63 years.[56] However, events such as the Paxton Boys massacres of 1763 had made the legislature aware of the need for a central capital. In 1799 the General Assembly moved to the Lancaster Courthouse,[56]

    19th century[edit]

    The General Assembly met in the old Dauphin County Court House until December 1821,[56] when the Federal-style “Hills Capitol” (named for Lancaster architect Stephen Hills) was constructed on a hilltop land grant of four acres set aside for a seat of state government in Harrisburg by the prescient, entrepreneurial son and namesake of John Harris, Sr., a Yorkshire native who had founded a trading post in 1705 and ferry on the east shore of the Susquehanna River.[59] The Hills Capitol burned down on February 2, 1897, during a heavy snowstorm, presumably because of a faulty flue.[56]

    The General Assembly met at a nearby Methodist Church until a new capitol could be built. Following an architectural selection contest that many alleged had been “rigged”, Chicago architect Henry Ives Cobb was charged with designing and building a replacement building; however, the legislature had little money to allocate to the project, and a roughly finished, somewhat industrial building dubbed the Cobb Capitol was completed. The General Assembly refused to occupy the building. Political and popular indignation in 1901 prompted a second contest that was restricted to Pennsylvania architects, and Joseph Miller Huston of Philadelphia was chosen to design the present Pennsylvania State Capitol that incorporated Cobb's building into magnificent public work, finished and dedicated in 1907.[56]

    James Buchanan, a native of Franklin County, served as the 15th U.S. president and was the first president to be born in Pennsylvania.[60] The Battle of Gettysburg — the major turning point of the American Civil War — took place near Gettysburg in July 1863.[61] An estimated 350,000 Pennsylvanians served in the Union Army forces including 8,600 African American military volunteers.

    The politics of Pennsylvania were for decades dominated by the financially conservative, Republican-aligned Cameron machine, established by U.S. senator Simon Cameron,[62] later a United States Secretary of War under President Abraham Lincoln. Control of the machine was subsequently passed on to Cameron's son J. Donald Cameron, whose ineffectiveness resulted in a transfer of power to the more shrewd Matthew Quay, and finally to Boies Penrose.

    The era after the American Civil War, known as the Gilded Age, saw the continued rise of industry in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania was home to some of the largest steel companies in the world, as Andrew Carnegie founded the Carnegie Steel Company and Charles M. Schwab founded the Bethlehem Steel. Other titans of industry, such as John D. Rockefeller and Jay Gould, also operated in the state. In the latter half of the 19th century, the U.S. oil industry was born in western Pennsylvania, which supplied the vast majority of kerosene for years thereafter. As the Pennsylvanian oil rush developed, the oil boom towns, such as Titusville, rose and fell. Coal mining was also a major industry in the state. In 1903, Milton S. Hershey began construction on a chocolate factory in Hershey, Pennsylvania; The Hershey Company would become the largest chocolate manufacturer in North America. The Heinz Company was also founded during this period. These huge companies exercised a large influence on the politics of Pennsylvania; as Henry Demarest Lloyd put it, oil baron John D. Rockefeller “had done everything with the Pennsylvania legislature except refine it”.[63] Pennsylvania created a Department of Highways and engaged in a vast program of road-building, while railroads continued to see heavy usage.[citation needed]

    The growth of industry eventually provided middle-class incomes to working-class households, after the development of labor unions helped them gain living wages. However, the rise of unions led to a rise of union busting, with several private police forces springing up.[63] Pennsylvania was the location of the first documented organized strike in North America, and Pennsylvania experienced the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 and the Coal Strike of 1902. Eventually, the eight-hour day was adopted, and the “coal and iron police” were banned.[64]

    20th century[edit]

    Hazleton coal miners in 1900. Coal mining was a major economic activity in Pennsylvania in the 19th and 20th centuries.

    At the beginning of the 20th century, Pennsylvania's economy centered on steel production, logging, coal mining, textile production and other forms of industrial manufacturing. A surge in immigration to the U.S. during the late 19th and early 20th centuries provided a steady flow of cheap labor for these industries, which often employed children and people who could not speak English from southern and eastern Europe.[citation needed] Thousands of Pennsylvanians volunteered during the Spanish–American War. Pennsylvania was an important industrial center in World War I, and the state provided over 300,000 soldiers for the military. On May 31, 1918, the Pittsburgh Agreement was signed in Pittsburgh to declare the formation of the independent state of Czechoslovakia with future Czechoslovak president Tomáš Masaryk.

    In 1923, President Calvin Coolidge established the Allegheny National Forest under the authority of the Weeks Act of 1911.[65] The forest is located in the northwest part of the state in Elk, Forest, McKean, and Warren Counties for the purposes of timber production and watershed protection in the Allegheny River basin. The Allegheny is the state's only national forest.[66] Pennsylvania manufactured 6.6 percent of total United States military armaments produced during World War II, ranking sixth among the 48 states.[67] The Philadelphia Naval Yard served as an important naval base, and Pennsylvania produced important military leaders such as George C. Marshall, Hap Arnold, Jacob Devers, and Carl Spaatz. During the war, over one million Pennsylvanians served in the armed forces, and more Medals of Honor were awarded to Pennsylvanians than to individuals from any other state.[citation needed]

    The Three Mile Island accident was the most significant nuclear accident in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant history.[68][69] The state was hard-hit by the decline and restructuring of the steel industry and other heavy industries during the late 20th century. With job losses came heavy population losses, especially in the state's largest cities. Pittsburgh lost its place among the top ten most populous cities in the United States by 1950, while Philadelphia dropped to being the fifth and later sixth largest city after decades of being within the top three.

    After 1990, as information-based industries became more important in the economy, state and local governments put more resources into the old, well-established public library system. Some localities, however, used new state funding to cut local taxes.[70] New ethnic groups, especially Hispanics and Latinos, began entering the state to fill low skill jobs in agriculture and service industries. For example, in Chester County, Mexican immigrants brought the Spanish language, increased Catholicism, high birth rates and cuisine when they were hired to as agricultural laborers; in some rural localities they made up half the population.[71] Meanwhile, Stateside Puerto Ricans built a large community in the state's third largest city, Allentown. They comprised over 40% of the city's population by 2000.[72]

    21st century[edit]

    With the end of mining and the downturn of manufacturing, the state had turned to service industries. Pittsburgh's concentration of universities has enabled it to be a leader in technology and healthcare. Similarly, Philadelphia has a concentration of university expertise. Healthcare, retail, transportation, and tourism are some of the state's growing industries of the postindustrial era. As in the rest of the nation, most residential population growth has occurred in suburban rather than central city areas, although both major cities have had significant revitalization in their downtown areas.[73] Philadelphia anchors the seventh-largest metropolitan area in the country, while Pittsburgh is the center of the twenty-seventh largest metro area in the country. The growth of the Lehigh Valley has made it one of the seventy most populous metro areas in the country,[74] while Pennsylvania also has six other metro areas among the top 200 most populous American metro areas. Philadelphia forms part of the Northeast megalopolis and is associated with the Northeastern United States, while Pittsburgh is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis and is often associated with the Midwestern United States and the Rust Belt.

    On September 11, 2001, during the terrorist attacks on the United States, the small town of Shanksville, Pennsylvania received worldwide attention after United Airlines Flight93 crashed into a field in Stonycreek Township, 1.75 miles (2.82km) north of the town, killing all 40 civilians and four al-Qaeda hijackers on board. The hijackers had intended to fly the plane to Washington, D.C. and crash it into either the Capitol or the White House. However, after learning from family members via airphone of the earlier attacks on the World Trade Center, the passengers on board revolted against the hijackers and fought for control of the plane, causing it to crash. It was the only one of the four aircraft hijacked that day that never reached its intended target and the heroism of the passengers has been commemorated.[75]

    Within the first half of 2003, the annual Tekko commences in Pittsburgh.[76]

    In October 2018, the Tree of Life – Or L'Simcha Congregation experienced the Pittsburgh synagogue shooting.[77]

    Geography[edit]

    Pennsylvania is 170 miles (274km) north to south and 283 miles (455km) east to west.[78] Of a total 46,055 square miles (119,282km2), 44,817 square miles (116,075km2) are land, 490 square miles (1,269km2) are inland waters, and 749 square miles (1,940km2) are waters in Lake Erie.[79] It is the 33rd-largest state in the United States.[80] Pennsylvania has 51 miles (82km)[81] of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles (92km)[8] of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean.

    The boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line (39°43′ N) to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80°31′ W to the west and the 42° N to the north, except for a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.

    Cities include Philadelphia, Reading, Lebanon and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, and the tri-cities of Allentown, Bethlehem, and Easton in the central east (known as the Lehigh Valley). The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Pittston, Nanticoke, and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg in the south-central region, with York, Carlisle, and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region.

    The state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau, Ridge and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and the Erie Plain.

    Adjacent states and province[edit]

    Climate[edit]

    Pennsylvania's diverse topography also produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, except for the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb). The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, Philadelphia, has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa).

    Summers are generally hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, and snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state, particularly locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches (250cm) of snowfall annually, and the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year. The state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into autumn. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; generally speaking, these tornadoes do not cause significant damage.[82]

    Monthly Average High and Low Temperatures For Various Pennsylvania Cities (in °F)
    City Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
    Scranton 33/19 37/21 46/28 59/38 70/48 78/56 82/61 80/60 72/52 61/41 49/33 38/24
    Erie 34/21 36/21 44/27 56/38 67/48 76/58 80/63 79/62 72/56 61/45 50/37 38/27
    Pittsburgh 36/21 39/23 49/30 62/40 71/49 79/58 83/63 81/62 74/54 63/43 51/35 39/25
    Harrisburg 37/23 41/25 50/33 62/42 72/52 81/62 85/66 83/64 76/56 64/45 53/35 41/27
    Philadelphia 40/26 44/28 53/34 64/44 74/54 83/64 87/69 85/68 78/60 67/48 56/39 45/30
    Allentown 36/20 40/22 49/29 61/39 72/48 80/58 84/63 82/61 75/53 64/41 52/33 40/24
    Sources:[83][84][85][86][87]

    Municipalities[edit]

    Allentown, the state's third largest city, May 2010

    Pennsylvania is divided into 67 counties.[88] Counties are further subdivided into municipalities that are either incorporated as cities, boroughs, or townships.[89] One county, Philadelphia County, is coterminous with the city of Philadelphia after it was consolidated in 1854. The most populous county in Pennsylvania is Philadelphia, while the least populous is Cameron (4,547).[90]

    There are a total of 56 cities in Pennsylvania, which are classified, by population, as either first-, second-, or third-class cities.[88][91] Philadelphia, Pennsylvania's largest city, has a population of 1.6 million and is the state's only first-class city.[89]Pittsburgh (303,000) and Scranton (76,000) are second-class and second-class ‘A' cities, respectively.[89]

    The rest of the cities, like the third and fourth-largest—Allentown (126,000) and Reading (95,000)—to the smallest—Parker with a population of only 820—are third-class cities.[92] First- and second-class cities are governed by a “strong mayor” form of mayor–council government, whereas third-class cities are governed by either a “weak mayor” form of government or a council–manager government.[89]

    Boroughs are generally smaller than cities, with most Pennsylvania cities having been incorporated as a borough before being incorporated as a city.[89] There are 958 boroughs in Pennsylvania, all of which are governed by the “weak mayor” form of mayor-council government.[88][89] The largest borough in Pennsylvania is State College (40,501) and the smallest is Centralia.

    Townships are the third type of municipality in Pennsylvania and are classified as either first-class or second-class townships. There are 1,454 second-class townships and 93 first-class townships.[93] Second-class townships can become first-class townships if they have a population density greater than 300 inhabitants per square mile (120/km2) and a referendum is passed supporting the change.[93] Pennsylvania's largest township is Upper Darby Township (85,681), and the smallest is East Keating Township.

    There is one exception to the types of municipalities in Pennsylvania: Bloomsburg was incorporated as a town in 1870 and is, officially, the only town in the state.[94] In 1975, McCandless Township adopted a home-rule charter under the name of “Town of McCandless”, but is, legally, still a first-class township.[95]

    The total of 56 cities, 958 boroughs, 93 first-class townships, 1,454 second-class townships, and one town (Bloomsburg) is 2,562 municipalities.

    Demographics[edit]

    Historical population
    Census Pop.
    1790 434,373
    1800 602,365 38.7%
    1810 810,091 34.5%
    1820 1,049,458 29.5%
    1830 1,348,233 28.5%
    1840 1,724,033 27.9%
    1850 2,311,786 34.1%
    1860 2,906,215 25.7%
    1870 3,521,951 21.2%
    1880 4,282,891 21.6%
    1890 5,258,113 22.8%
    1900 6,302,115 19.9%
    1910 7,665,111 21.6%
    1920 8,720,017 13.8%
    1930 9,631,350 10.5%
    1940 9,900,180 2.8%
    1950 10,498,012 6.0%
    1960 11,319,366 7.8%
    1970 11,793,909 4.2%
    1980 11,863,895 0.6%
    1990 11,881,643 0.1%
    2000 12,281,054 3.4%
    2010 12,702,379 3.4%
    2020 13,011,844 2.4%
    Source: 1910–2020[97]

    As of the 2020 U.S. census, Pennsylvania had a population of 13,011,844, up from 12,702,379 in 2010. In 2019, net migration to other states resulted in a decrease of 27,718, and immigration from other countries resulted in an increase of 127,007. Net migration to the Commonwealth was 98,289. Migration of native Pennsylvanians resulted in a decrease of 100,000 people. From 2008 to 2012, 5.8% of the population was foreign-born.[98]

    Place of origin[edit]

    Of the people residing in Pennsylvania, 74.5% were born in Pennsylvania, 18.4% were born in a different U.S. state, 1.5% were born in Puerto Rico, U.S. Island areas, or born abroad to American parent(s), and 5.6% were foreign born.[99] Foreign-born Pennsylvanians are largely from Asia (36.0%), Europe (35.9%), and Latin America (30.6%), with the remainder from Africa (5%), North America (3.1%), and Oceania (0.4%).

    The largest ancestry groups are listed below, expressed as a percentage of total people who responded with a particular ancestry for the 2010 census:[100][101]

    Race and ethnicity[edit]

    Pennsylvania's Hispanic or Latino American population grew by 82.6% between 2000 and 2010, making it one of the largest increases in a state's Hispanic population. The significant growth of the Hispanic or Latino population is due to migration to the state mainly from Puerto Rico, which is a U.S. territory, but to a lesser extent immigration from countries such as the Dominican Republic, Mexico, and various Central and South American nations, as well as from the wave of Hispanic and Latinos leaving New York and New Jersey for safer and more affordable living. The Asian population swelled by almost 60%, which was fueled by Indian, Vietnamese, and Chinese immigration, as well the many Asian transplants moving to Philadelphia from New York. The rapid growth of this community has given Pennsylvania one of the largest Asian populations in the nation by numerical values. The Black and African American population grew by 13%, which was the largest increase in that population amongst the state's peers (New York, New Jersey, Ohio, Illinois, and Michigan). Twelve other states saw decreases in their non-Hispanic white populations.[106] The state has a high in-migration of black and Hispanic people from other nearby states, with eastern and south-central portions of the state seeing the bulk of the increases.[90][107]

    The majority of Hispanic or Latino Americans in Pennsylvania are of Puerto Rican descent, having one of the largest and fastest-growing Puerto Rican populations in the country.[108][109] Most of the remaining Hispanic or Latino population is made up of Mexicans and Dominicans. Most Hispanic or Latinos are concentrated in Philadelphia, Lehigh Valley and South Central Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania's reported population of Hispanics or Latino Americans, especially among the Black race, has markedly increased in recent years.[110] The Hispanic or Latino population is greatest in Bethlehem, Allentown, Reading, Lancaster, York, and around Philadelphia. It is not clear how much of this change reflects a changing population and how much reflects increased willingness to self-identify minority status. As of 2010, it is estimated that about 85% of all Hispanics or Latino Americans in Pennsylvania live within a 150-mile (240km) radius of Philadelphia, with about 20% living within the city itself.

    Of the black population, the vast majority in the state are African American, being descendants of African slaves brought to the U.S. south during the colonial era. There are also a growing number of blacks of West Indian, recent African, and Hispanic or Latino origins.[111] Most blacks live in the Philadelphia area, Pittsburgh, and South Central Pennsylvania. Non-Hispanic whites make up the majority of Pennsylvania; they are mostly descended from German, Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Italian, and English immigrants. Rural portions of South Central Pennsylvania are famous nationwide for their notable Amish communities. The Wyoming Valley, consisting of Scranton and Wilkes-Barre, has the highest percentage of white residents of any metropolitan area (with a population of 500,000 or above) in the U.S., with 96.2% of its population claiming to be white with no Hispanic background.

    The center of population of Pennsylvania is located in Perry County, in the borough of Duncannon.[112]

    Pennsylvania's population growth from 1790 to 2000

    Pennsylvania's population distribution as of the 2000 census

    Age and poverty[edit]

    The state had the fourth-highest proportion of elderly (65+) citizens in 2010—15.4%, as compared to 13.0% nationwide.[113] According to U.S. Census Bureau estimates, the state's poverty rate was 12.5% in 2017, compared to 13.4% for the United States as a whole.[114]

    Population Aged 65 and Older: Top 10 States[113]
    State % of population
    Florida 17.3
    West Virginia 16.0
    Maine 15.9
    Pennsylvania 15.4
    Iowa 14.9
    Montana 14.8
    Vermont 14.6
    North Dakota 14.5
    Rhode Island 14.4
    Arkansas 14.4

    Birth data[edit]

    Note: Births in table do not add up because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

    Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of Mother
    Race 2013[115] 2014[116] 2015[117] 2016[118] 2017[119] 2018[120] 2019[121] 2020[122]
    White 109,007 (77.3%) 110,809 (77.9%) 109,595 (77.7%)
    > non-Hispanic White 98,751 (70.0%) 99,306 (69.8%) 97,845 (69.4%) 94,520 (67.8%) 92,297 (67.0%) 90,862 (67.0%) 88,710 (66.1%) 85,956 (65.8%)
    Black 24,770 (17.6%) 24,024 (16.9%) 24,100 (17.1%) 18,338 (13.1%) 18,400 (13.4%) 17,779 (13.1%) 17,585 (13.1%) 17,118 (13.1%)
    Asian 6,721 (4.7%) 7,067 (5.0%) 6,961 (4.9%) 6,466 (4.6%) 6,401 (4.6%) 6,207 (4.6%) 6,214 (4.6%) 6,074 (4.6%)
    American Indian 423 (0.3%) 368 (0.3%) 390 (0.3%) 86 (0.1%) 135 (0.1%) 128 (0.1%) 119 (0.1%) 83 (>0.1%)
    Hispanic (of any race) 14,163 (10.1%) 14,496 (10.2%) 14,950 (10.6%) 15,348 (11.0%) 15,840 (11.5%) 15,826 (11.7%) 16,718 (12.5%) 16,741 (12.8%)
    Total Pennsylvania 140,921 (100%) 142,268 (100%) 141,047 (100%) 139,409 (100%) 137,745 (100%) 135,673 (100%) 134,230 (100%) 130,693 (100%)
    • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin have not been collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

    Languages[edit]

    Top 10 Non-English Languages Spoken in Pennsylvania
    Language Percentage of population

    (as of 2010)[123]
    Spanish 4.1%
    German (including Pennsylvania Dutch) 0.9%
    Chinese (including Mandarin) 0.5%
    Italian 0.4%
    French 0.3%
    Russian 0.3%
    Vietnamese 0.3%
    Korean 0.3%
    Polish 0.2%
    Arabic 0.2%
    Hindi 0.2%

    As of 2010, 90.2% (10,710,239) of Pennsylvania residents age5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 4.1% (486,058) spoke Spanish, 0.9% (103,502) German (which includes Pennsylvania Dutch) and 0.5% (56,052) Chinese (which includes Mandarin) of the population over the age of five. In total, 9.9% (1,170,628) of Pennsylvania's population age5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.[123]

    Pennsylvania Dutch language[edit]

    Pennsylvania German is often—even though misleadingly—called “Pennsylvania Dutch”. The term Dutch used to mean “German”[124] (including the Netherlands), before the Latin name for them replaced it (but stuck with the Netherlands). When referring to the language spoken by the Pennsylvania Dutch people (Pennsylvania German) it means “German” or “Teutonic” rather than “Netherlander”. Germans, in their own language, call themselves “Deutsch”, (Pennsylvania German: “Deitsch”). The Pennsylvania German language is a descendant of German, in the West Central German dialect family. It is closest to Palatine German. Pennsylvania German is still very vigorous as a first language among Old Order Amish and Old Order Mennonites (principally in the Lancaster County area), whereas it is almost extinct as an everyday language outside the plain communities, though a few words have passed into English usage.

    Religion[edit]

    Religion in Pennsylvania (2014)[125]
    religion percent
    Protestant 47%
    Catholic 24%
    Unaffiliated 21%
    Other faiths/don't know 2%
    Hindu 1%
    Jehovah's witnesses 1%
    Jewish 0.8%
    Muslim 0.6%

    Of all the colonies, only Rhode Island had religious freedom as secure as in Pennsylvania.[126]Voltaire, writing of William Penn in 1733, observed: “The new sovereign also enacted several wise and wholesome laws for his colony, which have remained invariably the same to this day. The chief is, to ill-treat no person on account of religion, and to consider as brethren all those who believe in one God.”[127] One result of this uncommon freedom was a wide religious diversity, which continues to the present.

    Pennsylvania's population in 2010 was 12,702,379; of these, 6,838,440 (53.8%) were estimated to belong to some sort of organized religion. According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) at Pennsylvania State University, the largest religious bodies in Pennsylvania by adherents were the Roman Catholic Church with 3,503,028 adherents, the United Methodist Church with 591,734 members, and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 501,974 members. Since 2014 among the religious population, 73% of the state was Christian per the Pew Research Center.[125] In 2020, the Public Religion Research Institute estimated 68% of the population identified with Christianity.[128] Among all surveys, the Roman Catholic Church remained the single-largest Christian denomination in the state.

    Pennsylvania, especially in the west and in the Pittsburgh area, has one of the largest communities of Presbyterians in the nation, being the third highest by percentage of population and the largest outright in membership as Protestant Christians.[129] The Presbyterian Church (USA), with about 250,000 members and 1,011 congregations, is the largest Presbyterian denomination while the Presbyterian Church in America is also significant, with 112 congregations and approximately 23,000 adherents; the EPC has around 50 congregations, as well as the ECO according to 2010 estimates. The fourth-largest Protestant denomination, the United Church of Christ, has 180,000 members and 627 congregations in the state. The American Baptist Churches USA (also referred to as the Northern Baptist Convention) is based in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania.

    Pennsylvania was the center state of the German Reformed denomination from the 1700s.[130]Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, is one of the headquarters of the Moravian Church in America. Pennsylvania also has a very large Amish population, second only to Ohio among U.S. states.[131] In the year 2000 there was a total Amish population of 47,860 in Pennsylvania and a further 146,416 Mennonites and 91,200 Brethren. The total Anabapist population including Bruderhof[132] was 232,631, about two percent of the population.[133] While Pennsylvania owes its existence to Quakers, and much of the historic character of the Commonwealth is ideologically rooted in the teachings of the Religious Society of Friends (as they are officially known), practicing Quakers are a small minority of about 10,000 adherents in 2010.[134]

    Economy[edit]

    Pennsylvania unemployment rate, 1976–2021

    US unemployment rate

    Bethlehem Steel in Bethlehem was one of the world's leading steel manufacturers for most of the 19th and 20th century. In 1982, it discontinued most of its operations, declared bankruptcy in 2001, and was dissolved in 2003.

    Pennsylvania's 2018 total gross state product (GSP) of $803billion ranks the state 6th in the nation.[135] If Pennsylvania were an independent country, its economy would rank as the 19th-largest in the world.[136] On a per-capita basis, Pennsylvania's 2016 per-capita GSP of $50,665 (in chained 2009 dollars) ranks 22nd among the fifty states.[135]

    Geo map of average income by location in Pennsylvania. Data shown is from the 2014 American Community Survey five-year estimate.

    As of 2016, there were 5,354,964 people in employment in Pennsylvania, with 301,484 total employer establishments.[137]

    Philadelphia in the southeast corner, Pittsburgh in the southwest corner, Erie in the northwest corner, Scranton-Wilkes-Barre in the northeast corner, and Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton in the east central region are urban manufacturing centers. Much of the Commonwealth is rural; this dichotomy affects state politics as well as the state economy.[138] Philadelphia is home to six Fortune 500 companies,[139] with more located in suburbs like King of Prussia; it is a leader in the financial[140] and insurance industry.

    Pittsburgh is home to eight Fortune 500 companies, including U.S. Steel, PPG Industries, and H.J. Heinz.[139] In all, Pennsylvania is home to fifty Fortune 500 companies.[139]Hershey is home to The Hershey Company, one of the largest chocolate manufacturers in the world. Erie is also home to GE Transportation, which is the largest producer of train locomotives in the United States.

    As in the US as a whole and in most states, the largest private employer in the Commonwealth is Walmart, followed by the University of Pennsylvania.[141][142] Pennsylvania is also home to the oldest investor-owned utility company in the US, The York Water Company.

    As of May 2020, the state's unemployment rate is 13.1%.[143]

    Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
    GDP in mil. US$[144] 506.505 525.979 559.876 579.432 573.964 596.662 615.411 637.896 659.792 684.781 708.402 724.936
    GDP per capita in real 2009 US$[144] 45,035 45,021 46,330 46,862 45,312 46,387 46,872 47,540 48,278 49,155 50,418 50,997
    Real growth rate in%[145] 1.3% 0.5% 3.3% 1.5% −2.9% 2.7% 1.3% 1.6% 1.6% 2.0% 2.6% 0.9%
    unemployment rate (in July)[146] 4.9% 4.7% 4.4% 5.2% 8.2% 8.3% 8.0% 7.9% 7.3% 5.8% 5.3% 5.5%

    Banking[edit]

    The first nationally chartered bank in the United States, the Bank of North America, was founded in 1781 in Philadelphia. After a series of mergers, the Bank of North America is part of Wells Fargo, which uses national charter 1.

    Pennsylvania is also the home to the first nationally chartered bank under the 1863 National Banking Act. That year, the Pittsburgh Savings & Trust Company received a national charter and renamed itself the First National Bank of Pittsburgh as part of the National Banking Act. That bank is still in existence today as PNC Financial Services and remains based in Pittsburgh. PNC is the state's largest bank and the sixth-largest in the United States.

    Agriculture[edit]

    Pennsylvania ranks 19th overall in agricultural production.[147]

    It also ranks 8th in the nation in winemaking.[148]

    The Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture worked with private companies to establish “PA Preferred” as a way to brand agricultural products grown or made in the state to support and promote Pennsylvania products and locally grown food.[149]

    The financial impact of agriculture in Pennsylvania[150] includes employment of more than 66,800 people employed by the food manufacturing industry; and over $1.7billion in food product export (in 2011).

    Gambling[edit]

    Casino gambling was legalized in Pennsylvania in 2004. Currently, there are nine casinos across the state with three under construction or in planning. At that time, only horse racing, slot machines, and electronic table games were legal in Pennsylvania, although a bill to legalize table games was being negotiated in the fall of 2009.[151][152] Table games such as poker, roulette, blackjack, and craps were finally approved by the state legislature in January 2010, being signed into law by the Governor on January 7.

    Former Governor Ed Rendell had considered legalizing video poker machines in bars and private clubs in 2009 since an estimated 17,000 operate illegally across the state.[153] Under this plan, any establishment with a liquor license would be allowed up to five machines. All machines would be connected to the state's computer system, like commercial casinos. The state would impose a 50% tax on net gambling revenues, after winning players have been paid, with the remaining 50% going to the establishment owners.

    Film[edit]

    The Pennsylvania Film Production Tax Credit began in 2004 and stimulated the development of a film industry in the state.[154]

    Governance[edit]

    Pennsylvania has had five constitutions during its statehood:[155] 1776, 1790, 1838, 1874, and 1968. Before that the province of Pennsylvania was governed for a century by a Frame of Government, of which there were four versions: 1682, 1683, 1696, and 1701.[155] The capital of Pennsylvania is Harrisburg. The legislature meets there in the State Capitol.

    In a 2020 study, Pennsylvania was ranked as the 19th hardest state for citizens to vote in.[156]

    Executive[edit]

    The current Governor is Tom Wolf. The other elected officials composing the executive branch are the Lieutenant Governor John Fetterman, Attorney General Joshua Shapiro, Auditor General Timothy DeFoor, and Pennsylvania Treasurer Stacy Garrity. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor run as a ticket in the general election and are up for re-election every four years during the midterm elections. The elections for Attorney General, Auditor General, and Treasurer are held every four years coinciding with a Presidential election.[157]

    Legislative[edit]

    Pennsylvania has a bicameral legislature set up by Commonwealth's constitution in 1790. The original Frame of Government of William Penn had a unicameral legislature.[158] The General Assembly includes 50 Senators and 203 Representatives. Joe Scarnati is currently President Pro Tempore of the State Senate, Jake Corman the Majority Leader, and Jay Costa the Minority Leader.[159]Bryan Cutler is Speaker of the House of Representatives, with Kerry A. Benninghoff as Majority Leader and Frank Dermody as Minority Leader.[160] As of the 2018 elections, the Republicans hold the majority in the State House and Senate.

    Judiciary[edit]

    Pennsylvania is divided into 60 judicial districts,[161] most of which (except Philadelphia) have magisterial district judges (formerly called district justices and justices of the peace), who preside mainly over preliminary hearings in felony and misdemeanor offenses, all minor (summary) criminal offenses, and small civil claims.[161] Most criminal and civil cases originate in the Courts of Common Pleas, which also serve as appellate courts to the district judges and for local agency decisions.[161] The Superior Court hears all appeals from the Courts of Common Pleas not expressly designated to the Commonwealth Court or Supreme Court. It also has original jurisdiction to review warrants for wiretap surveillance.[161] The Commonwealth Court is limited to appeals from final orders of certain state agencies and certain designated cases from the Courts of Common Pleas.[161] The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania is the final appellate court. All judges in Pennsylvania are elected; the chief justice is determined by seniority.[161]

    State law enforcement[edit]

    The Pennsylvania State Police is the chief law enforcement agency in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

    Politics[edit]

    Since the latter half of the 20th century, Pennsylvania has been a powerful swing state. It supported the losing candidate in a presidential election only twice between 1932 to 1988, faltering in 1932 and 1968 with Herbert Hoover and Hubert Humphrey, respectively. Between 1992 and 2016, Pennsylvania trended Democratic in presidential elections, voting for Bill Clinton twice by large margins, and by a slightly closer margin for Al Gore in 2000. In the 2004 presidential election, Senator John F. Kerry beat President George W. Bush in Pennsylvania, 2,938,095 (51%) to 2,793,847 (48%). In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama defeated Republican John McCain in Pennsylvania, 3,276,363 (54%) to 2,655,885 (44%). In the 2016 presidential election, Republican Donald Trump broke the Democratic streak in the state, winning by 2,970,733 (48%) votes to 2,926,441 (47%) votes.[162] The state returned to the Democratic column in 2020 by voting for Joe Biden over Trump, 3,458,229 (50%) to 3,377,674 (49%). The state holds 20 electoral votes.[163]

    In recent national elections since 1992, Pennsylvania had leaned for the Democratic Party. The state voted for the Democratic ticket for president in every election between 1992 and 2012. During the 2008 election campaign, a recruitment drive saw registered Democrats outnumber registered Republicans by 1.2million. However, Pennsylvania has a history of electing Republican senators. From 2009 to 2011, the state was represented by two Democratic senators for the first time since 1947 after Republican Senator Arlen Specter switched party affiliation. In 2010, Republicans recaptured a U.S. Senate seat as well as a majority of the state's congressional seats, control of both chambers of the state legislature and the governor's mansion. Democrats won back the governor's mansion four years later in the 2014 election. It was the first time since a governor became eligible to succeed themself that an incumbent governor had been defeated for reelection.

    Voter registration totals as of May 31, 2022[164]
    Party Registered voters Percentage
    Democratic 4,000,189 45.77%
    Republican 3,450,729 39.49%
    Unaffiliated 910,946 10.42%
    Minor parties 376,597 4.31%
    Total 8,738,461 100%

    Historically, Democratic strength was concentrated in Philadelphia in the southeast, the Pittsburgh and Johnstown areas in the southwest, and Scranton/Wilkes-Barre in the northeast. Republican strength was concentrated in the Philadelphia suburbs, as well as the more rural areas in the central, northeastern, and western portions. The latter counties have long been among the most conservative areas in the nation. Since 1992, however, the Philadelphia suburbs have swung Democratic; the brand of Republicanism there was traditionally a moderate one. The Pittsburgh suburbs, historically a Democratic stronghold, have swung more Republican since the turn of the millennium.

    Democratic political consultant James Carville once pejoratively described Pennsylvania as “Philadelphia in the east, Pittsburgh in the west and Alabama in the middle”. Political analysts and editorials refer to central Pennsylvania as the “T” in statewide elections. The Three Valleys (Delaware, Lehigh, and Wyoming) and greater Pittsburgh generally vote for Democratic candidates, while the majority of the counties in the central part of the state vote Republican. As a result, maps showing the results of statewide elections invariably form a “T” shape.

    Taxation[edit]

    Pennsylvania had the 15th-highest state and local tax burden in the United States in 2012, according to the Tax Foundation.[165] Residents paid a total of $83.7 billion in state and local taxes with a per capita average of $4,589 annually. Residents share 76% of the total tax burden. Many state politicians have tried to increase the share of taxes paid by out-of-state sources. Suggested revenue sources include taxing natural gas drilling as Pennsylvania is the only state without such a tax on gas drilling.[166] Additional revenue prospects include trying to place tolls on interstate highways; specifically Interstate 80, which is used heavily by out of state commuters with high maintenance costs.[167]

    Sales taxes provide 39% of the Commonwealth's revenue; personal income taxes 34%; motor vehicle taxes about 12%, and taxes on cigarettes and alcoholic beverages 5%.[168] The personal income tax is a flat 3.07%. An individual's taxable income is based on the following eight types of income: compensation (salary); interest; dividends; net profits from the operation of a business, profession or farm; net gains or income from the dispositions of property; net gains or income from rents, royalties, patents and copyrights; income derived through estates or trusts; and gambling and lottery winnings (other than Pennsylvania Lottery winnings).[169]

    Counties, municipalities, and school districts levy taxes on real estate. In addition, some local bodies assess a wage tax on personal income. Generally, the total wage tax rate is capped at 1% of income but some municipalities with home rule charters may charge more than 1%. Thirty-two of the Commonwealth's sixty-seven counties levy a personal property tax on stocks, bonds, and similar holdings.

    With the exception of the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, municipalities and school districts are allowed to enact a local earned income tax within the purview of Act 32. Residents of these municipalities and school districts are required to file a local income tax return in addition to federal and state returns. This local return is filed with the local income tax collector, a private collection agency appointed by a particular county to collect the local earned income and local services tax (the latter a flat fee deducted from salaried employees working within a particular municipality or school district).[170][171][172][173]

    The City of Philadelphia has its own local income taxation system. Philadelphia-based employers are required to withhold the Philadelphia wage tax from the salaries of their employees. Residents of Philadelphia working for an employer are not required to file a local return as long as their Philadelphia wage tax is fully withheld by their employer. If their employer does not withhold the Philadelphia wage tax, residents are required to register with the Revenue Department and file an Earnings Tax return. Residents of Philadelphia with self-employment income are required to file a Net Profits Tax (NPT) return, while those with business income from Philadelphia sources are required to obtain a Commercial Activity License (CAL) and pay the Business Income and Receipts Tax (BIRT) and the NPT. Residents with unearned income (except for interest from checking and savings accounts) are required to file and pay the School Income-tax (SIT).[174]

    The complexity of Pennsylvania's local tax filing system has been criticized by experts, who note that the outsourcing of collections to private entities is akin to tax farming and that many new residents are caught off guard and end up facing “failure to file” penalties even if they did not owe any tax. Attempts to transfer local income tax collections to the state level (i.e. by having a separate local section on the state income tax return, currently the method used to collect local income taxes in New York, Maryland, Indiana, and Iowa) have been unsuccessful.[175]

    Federal representation[edit]

    Pennsylvania's two U.S. Senators are Democrat Bob Casey, Jr. and Republican Pat Toomey.

    Pennsylvania has 18 seats in the United States House of Representatives, as of the 2010 Census.[176]

    Health[edit]

    Pennsylvania has a mixed health record, and is ranked as the 29th-overall-healthiest state according to the 2013 United Health Foundation's Health Rankings.[177]

    Education[edit]

    Pennsylvania has 500 public school districts, thousands of private schools, publicly funded colleges and universities, and over 100 private institutions of higher education.

    Primary and secondary education[edit]

    In general, under state law, school attendance in Pennsylvania is mandatory for a child from the age of 8until the age of 17, or until graduation from an accredited high school, whichever is earlier.[178] As of 2005, 83.8% of Pennsylvania residents age 18 to 24 have completed high school. Among residents age 25 and over, 86.7% have graduated from high school.

    The following are the four-year graduation rates for students completing high school in 2016:[179]

    Cohort All Students Male Female White Hispanic Black Asian Special Education
    % graduating 86.09 84.14 88.13 90.48 72.83 73.22 91.21 74.06

    Additionally, 27.5% have gone on to obtain a bachelor's degree or higher.[180] State students consistently do well in standardized testing. In 2007, Pennsylvania ranked 14th in mathematics, 12th in reading, and 10th in writing for 8th grade students.[181]

    In 1988, the Pennsylvania General Assembly passed Act 169, which allows parents or guardians to homeschool their children as an option for compulsory school attendance. This law specifies the requirements and responsibilities of the parents and the school district where the family lives.[182]

    Higher education[edit]

    The Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education (PASSHE) is the public university system of the Commonwealth, with 14 state-owned schools. West Chester University has by far the largest student body of the 14 universities. The Commonwealth System of Higher Education is an organizing body of the four state-related schools in Pennsylvania; these schools (Pennsylvania State University, Lincoln University, the University of Pittsburgh, and Temple University) are independent institutions that receive some state funding. There are also 15 publicly funded two-year community colleges and technical schools that are separate from the PASSHE system. Additionally, there are many private two- and four-year technical schools, colleges, and universities.

    Carnegie Mellon University, The Pennsylvania State University, the University of Pennsylvania, and the University of Pittsburgh are members of the Association of American Universities, an invitation-only organization of leading research universities. Lehigh University is a private research university located in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania State University is the Commonwealth's land-grant university, Sea Grant College and, Space Grant College. The University of Pennsylvania, located in Philadelphia, is considered the first university in the United States and established the country's first medical school. The University of Pennsylvania is also the Commonwealth's only, and geographically most southern, Ivy League school. The Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine (LECOM) is a private graduate school of medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy with a main campus in Erie, Pennsylvania, and a branch campus located in Greensburg, Pennsylvania (with two other campuses outside of Pennsylvania). With over 2,200 enrolled medical students, the College of Osteopathic Medicine at LECOM is the largest medical school in the United States.[186][187][188][189] The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts is the first and oldest art school in the United States.[190]Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, now a part of University of the Sciences in Philadelphia, was the first pharmacy school in the United States.[191]

    Recreation[edit]

    Pennsylvania is home to the nation's first zoo, the Philadelphia Zoo.[192] Other long-accredited AZA zoos include the Erie Zoo and the Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium. The Lehigh Valley Zoo and ZOOAMERICA are other notable zoos. The Commonwealth boasts some of the finest museums in the country, including the Carnegie Museums in Pittsburgh, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, and several others. One unique museum is the Houdini Museum in Scranton, the only building in the world devoted to the legendary magician.[193] Pennsylvania is also home to the National Aviary, located in Pittsburgh.

    All 121 state parks in Pennsylvania feature free admission.

    Pennsylvania offers a number of notable amusement parks, including Kalahari Resorts Poconos, Conneaut Lake Park, Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom, Dutch Wonderland, DelGrosso's Amusement Park, Hersheypark, Idlewild Park, Kennywood, Knoebels, Lakemont Park, Sandcastle Waterpark, Sesame Place, Great Wolf Lodge and Waldameer Park. Pennsylvania also is home to the largest indoor waterpark resort on the East Coast, Splash Lagoon in Erie.

    There are also notable music festivals that take place in Pennsylvania. These include Musikfest and NEARfest in Bethlehem, the Philadelphia Folk Festival, Creation Festival, the Great Allentown Fair, and Purple Door.

    There are nearly one million licensed hunters in Pennsylvania. Whitetail deer, black bear, cottontail rabbits, squirrel, turkey, and grouse are common game species. Pennsylvania is considered one of the finest wild turkey hunting states in the Union, alongside Texas and Alabama. Sport hunting in Pennsylvania provides a massive boost for the Commonwealth's economy. A report from The Center for Rural Pennsylvania (a Legislative Agency of the Pennsylvania General Assembly) reported that hunting, fishing, and furtaking generated a total of $9.6billion statewide.

    The Boone and Crockett Club shows that five of the ten largest (skull size) black bear entries came from the state.[194] The state also has a tied record for the largest hunter shot black bear in the Boone & Crockett books at 733lb (332kg) and a skull of 23 3/16 tied with a bear shot in California in 1993.[194] The largest bear ever found dead was in Utah in 1975, and the second-largest was shot by a poacher in the state in 1987.[194] Pennsylvania holds the second-highest number of Boone & Crockett-recorded record black bears at 183, second only to Wisconsin‘s 299.[194]

    Transportation[edit]

    Road and rail map of Pennsylvania

    The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, abbreviated as PennDOT, is responsible for transport issues within the commonwealth.

    Road[edit]

    PennDOT owns 39,861 miles (64,150km) of the 121,770 miles (195,970km) of roadway in the state, making it the fifth-largest state highway system in the United States.[195] The Pennsylvania Turnpike system is 535 miles (861km) long, with the mainline portion stretching from Ohio to Philadelphia and New Jersey.[195] It is overseen by the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission. Another major east–west route is Interstate 80, which runs primarily in the northern tier of the state from Ohio to New Jersey at the Delaware Water Gap. Interstate 90 travels the relatively short distance between Ohio and New York through Erie County, in the extreme northwestern part of the state.

    Primary north–south highways are Interstate 79 from its terminus in Erie through Pittsburgh to West Virginia, Interstate 81 from New York through Scranton, Lackawanna County and Harrisburg to Maryland and Interstate 476, which begins 7 miles (11km) north of the Delaware border, in Chester, Delaware County and travels 132 miles (212km) to Clarks Summit, Lackawanna County, where it joins I-81. All but 20 miles (32km) of I-476 is the Northeast Extension of the Pennsylvania Turnpike, while the highway south of the mainline of the Pennsylvania Turnpike is officially called the “Veterans Memorial Highway”, but is commonly referred to by locals as the “Blue Route”.

    Rail[edit]

    The Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) is the sixth-largest transit agency in the United States and operates the commuter, heavy and light rail transit, and transit bus service in the Philadelphia metropolitan area. The Port Authority of Allegheny County is the 25th-largest transit agency and provides transit bus and light rail service in and around Pittsburgh.[196]

    Intercity passenger rail transit is provided by Amtrak, with the majority of traffic occurring on the Keystone Service in the high-speed Keystone Corridor between Harrisburg and Philadelphia's 30th Street Station before heading north to New York City, as well as the Northeast Regional providing frequent high-speed service up and down the Northeast Corridor. The Pennsylvanian follows the same route from New York City to Harrisburg, but extends out to Pittsburgh. The Capitol Limited also passes through Pittsburgh, as well as Connellsville, on its way from Chicago to Washington, D.C.[197] Traveling between Chicago and New York City, the Lake Shore Limited passes through Erie once in each direction.[197] There are 67short-line, freight railroads operating in Pennsylvania, the highest number in any U.S. state.[197]

    Bus and coach[edit]

    Intercity bus service is provided between cities in Pennsylvania and other major points in the Northeast by Bolt Bus, Fullington Trailways, Greyhound Lines, Martz Trailways, Megabus, OurBus, Trans-Bridge Lines, as well as various Chinatown bus companies. In 2018, OurBus began offering service from West Chester, PA– Malvern, PA– King of Prussia, PA– Fort Washington, PA– New York, NY.

    Air[edit]

    Pennsylvania has seven major airports: Philadelphia International, Pittsburgh International, Lehigh Valley International, Harrisburg International, Wilkes-Barre/Scranton International, Erie International, and University Park Airport. A total of 134public-use airports are located in the state.[197]

    Water[edit]

    The port of Pittsburgh is the second-largest inland port in the United States and the 18th-largest port overall; the Port of Philadelphia is the 24th-largest port in the United States.[198] Pennsylvania's only port on the Great Lakes is located in Erie.

    The Allegheny River Lock and Dam Two is the most-used lock operated by the United States Army Corps of Engineers of its 255 nationwide.[199] The dam impounds the Allegheny River near Downtown Pittsburgh.

    Culture[edit]

    Sports[edit]

    Pennsylvania is home to many major league professional sports teams: the Philadelphia Phillies and Pittsburgh Pirates of Major League Baseball, the Philadelphia 76ers of the National Basketball Association, the Pittsburgh Steelers and Philadelphia Eagles of the National Football League, the Philadelphia Flyers and Pittsburgh Penguins of the National Hockey League, and the Philadelphia Union of Major League Soccer. Among them, these teams have accumulated 7World Series Championships (Pirates 5, Phillies 2), 16 National League Pennants (Pirates 9, Phillies 7), 3pre-Super Bowl era NFL Championships (Eagles), 7Super Bowl Championships (Steelers 6, Eagles 1), 2NBA Championships (76ers), and 7Stanley Cups (Penguins 5, Flyers 2).

    Pennsylvania also has minor league and semi-pro sports teams: the Triple-A baseball Lehigh Valley IronPigs and the Scranton/Wilkes-Barre RailRiders of the Triple-A East; the Double-A baseball Altoona Curve, Erie SeaWolves, Harrisburg Senators, and Reading Fightin Phils of the Double-A Northeast; the collegiate summer baseball State College Spikes and Williamsport Crosscutters of the MLB Draft League; the independent baseball Lancaster Barnstormers and York Revolution of the Atlantic League of Professional Baseball; the independent baseball Washington Wild Things of the Frontier League; the Erie BayHawks of the NBA G League; the Lehigh Valley Phantoms, Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins, and Hershey Bears of the American Hockey League; the Reading Royals and of the ECHL; and the Philadelphia Soul of the Arena Football League. Among them, these teams have accumulated 12 triple and double-A baseball league titles (RailRiders 1, Senators 6, Fightin Phils 4Curve 1), 3Arena Bowl Championships (Soul), and 11 Calder Cups (Bears).

    The first World Series between the Boston Americans (which became the Boston Red Sox) and Pittsburgh Pirates was played in Pittsburgh in 1903. Since 1959, the Little League World Series is held each summer in South Williamsport, near where Little League Baseball was founded in Williamsport.[200]

    Soccer is gaining popularity within the state as well. With the addition of the Philadelphia Union in the MLS, the state now boasts three teams that are eligible to compete for the Lamar Hunt U.S. Open Cup annually. The other two teams are Philadelphia Union II and the Pittsburgh Riverhounds. However, Penn FC (formally Harrisburg City Islanders) used to be one of these teams before they announced they'd be on hiatus in 2019; although they would be returning for the 2020 season.[201] Both of the United Soccer League (USL). Within the American Soccer Pyramid, the MLS takes the first tier, while the USL-2 claims the third tier.

    Arnold Palmer, one of the 20th century's most notable pro golfers, comes from Latrobe, while Jim Furyk, a current PGA member, grew up near in Lancaster. PGA tournaments in Pennsylvania include the 84 Lumber Classic, played at Nemacolin Woodlands Resort, in Farmington and the Northeast Pennsylvania Classic, played at Glenmaura National Golf Club, in Moosic.

    Philadelphia is home to LOVE Park, once a popular spot for skateboarding, and across from City Hall, host to ESPN‘s X Games in 2001 and 2002.[202]

    Racing[edit]

    In motorsports, the Mario Andretti dynasty of race drivers hails from Nazareth in the Lehigh Valley. Notable racetracks in Pennsylvania include the Jennerstown Speedway in Jennerstown, the Lake Erie Speedway in North East, Mahoning Valley Speedway in Lehighton, the Motordrome Speedway (now closed) in Smithton, the Mountain Speedway in Saint Johns, the Nazareth Speedway in Nazareth (closed); the Lernerville Speedway in Sarver and the Pocono Raceway in Long Pond, which is home to two NASCAR Cup Series races and an IndyCar Series race. The state is also home to Maple Grove Raceway, near Reading, which hosts major National Hot Rod Association sanctioned drag racing events each year.

    There are also two motocross race tracks that host a round of the AMA Toyota Motocross Championships in Pennsylvania. High Point Raceway is located in Mount Morris, Pennsylvania, and Steel City is located in Delmont, Pennsylvania.

    Horse racing courses in Pennsylvania consist of The Meadows near Pittsburgh, Mohegan Sun Pocono in Wilkes-Barre, and Harrah's Philadelphia in Chester, which offer harness racing, and Penn National Race Course in Grantville, Parx Racing (formerly Philadelphia Park) in Bensalem, and Presque Isle Downs near Erie, which offer thoroughbred racing. Smarty Jones, the 2004 Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes winner, had Philadelphia Park as his home course.

    College sports[edit]

    College football is popular in Pennsylvania.[citation needed] There are three colleges in Pennsylvania that play at the highest level of collegiate football competition, the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision. Two play in Power Five conferences, the Penn State University Nittany Lions of the Big Ten Conference and the University of Pittsburgh Panthers of the Atlantic Coast Conference, while the Temple University Owls play in the American Athletic Conference. Penn State claims two national championships (1982 & 1986) as well as seven undefeated seasons (1887, 1912, 1968, 1969, 1973, 1986 and 1994). Penn State plays its home games in the second-largest stadium in the United States, Beaver Stadium, which seats 106,572, and is currently led by head coach James Franklin. The University of Pittsburgh Panthers claims nine national championships (1915, 1916, 1918, 1929, 1931, 1934, 1936, 1937 and 1976) and has played eight undefeated seasons (1904, 1910, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1920, 1937 and 1976).[203] Pitt plays its home games at Heinz Field, a facility it shares with the Pittsburgh Steelers, and is led by current head football coach Pat Narduzzi. Other Pennsylvania schools that have won national titles in football include Lafayette College (1896), Villanova University (FCS 2009), the University of Pennsylvania (1895, 1897, 1904 and 1908)[204] and Washington and Jefferson College (1921).

    College basketball is also popular in the state, especially in the Philadelphia area where five universities, collectively termed the Big Five, have a rich tradition in NCAA Division I basketball. National titles in college basketball have been won by La Salle University (1954), Temple University (1938), University of Pennsylvania (1920 and 1921), University of Pittsburgh (1928 and 1930), and Villanova University (1985, 2016, and 2018).[205][206]

    Food[edit]

    Author Sharon Hernes Silverman calls Pennsylvania the snack food capital of the world.[208] It leads all other states in the manufacture of pretzels and potato chips. The Sturgis Pretzel House introduced the pretzel to America, and companies like Anderson Bakery Company, Intercourse Pretzel Factory, and Snyder's of Hanover are leading manufacturers in the Commonwealth. Two of the three companies that define the U.S. potato chip industry are based in Pennsylvania: Utz Quality Foods, which started making chips in Hanover, Pennsylvania, in 1921 and Wise Foods, which started making chips in Berwick also in 1921. The third, Frito-Lay is part of PepsiCo, and is based in Plano, Texas. Other companies such as Herr's Snacks, Martin's Potato Chips, Snyder's of Berlin (not associated with Snyder's of Hanover), Middleswarth Potatoe Chips (in Middleburg) and Troyer Farms Potato Products are popular chip manufacturers.

    The U.S. chocolate industry is centered in Hershey, Pennsylvania, with Mars, Godiva, and Wilbur Chocolate Company nearby, and smaller manufacturers such as Asher's[209] in Souderton,[210] and Gertrude Hawk Chocolates of Dunmore. Other notable companies include Just Born in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, makers of Hot Tamales, Mike and Ikes, the Easter favorite marshmallow Peeps, and Boyer Brothers of Altoona, Pennsylvania, which is well known for its Mallo Cups. Auntie Anne's Pretzels began as a market-stand in Downingtown, Pennsylvania, and now has corporate headquarters in Lancaster City.[211] Traditional Pennsylvania Dutch foods include chicken potpie, ham potpie, schnitz un knepp (dried apples, ham, and dumplings), fasnachts (raised doughnuts), scrapple, pretzels, bologna, chow-chow, and Shoofly pie. Martin's Famous Pastry Shoppe, Inc., headquartered in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, specializes in potato bread, another traditional Pennsylvania Dutch food. D.G. Yuengling & Son, America's oldest brewery, has been brewing beer in Pottsville since 1829.

    Among the regional foods associated with Philadelphia are cheesesteaks, hoagies, soft pretzels, Italian water ice, Irish potato candy, scrapple, Tastykake, and strombolis. In Pittsburgh, tomato ketchup was improved by Henry John Heinz from 1876 to the early 20th century. Famous to a lesser extent than Heinz ketchup is the Pittsburgh's Primanti Brothers Restaurant sandwiches, pierogies, and city chicken. Outside of Scranton, in Old Forge there are dozens of Italian restaurants specializing in pizza made unique by thick, light crust and American cheese. Erie also has its share of unique foods, including Greek sauce and sponge candy. Sauerkraut along with pork and mashed potatoes is a common meal on New Year's Day in Pennsylvania.

    Nicknames[edit]

    Pennsylvania has been known as the Keystone State since 1802,[212] based in part upon its central location among the original Thirteen Colonies forming the United States, and also in part because of the number of important American documents signed in the state (such as the Declaration of Independence). It was also a keystone state economically, having both the industry common to the North (making such wares as Conestoga wagons and rifles)[213][214] and the agriculture common to the South (producing feed, fiber, food, and tobacco).[215]

    Another one of Pennsylvania's nicknames is the Quaker State; in colonial times, it was known officially as the Quaker Province,[216] in recognition of Quaker[217]William Penn‘s First Frame of Government[218] constitution for Pennsylvania that guaranteed liberty of conscience. He knew of the hostility[219] Quakers faced when they opposed religious ritual, taking oaths, violence, war and military service, and what they viewed as ostentatious frippery.[220]

    The Coal State“, “The Oil State“, “The Chocolate State“, and “The Steel State” were adopted when those were the state's greatest industries.[221]

    “The State of Independence” currently appears on many road signs entering the state.

    Notable people[edit]

    Sister regions[edit]

    See also[edit]

    Notes[edit]

    1. ^ Persons of Hispanic or Latino origin are not distinguished between total and partial ancestry.

    References[edit]

    Citations[edit]

    1. ^ “Symbols of Pennsylvania”. Portal.state.pa.us. Archived from the original on October 14, 2007. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
    2. ^ a b “Elevations and Distances in the United States”. United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
    3. ^ Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
    4. ^ “Median Annual Household Income”. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
    5. ^ a b Bureau, US Census (April 26, 2021). “2020 Census Apportionment Results”. The United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
    6. ^ “Most spoken languages in Pennsylvania in 2010”. MLA Data Center. Archived from the original on May 27, 2013. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
    7. ^ “Cookie Candidates”. 2016. Archived from the original on March 7, 2016. Retrieved February 22, 2016.
    8. ^ a b “General Coastline and Shoreline Mileage of the United States” (PDF). NOAA Office of Coastal Management. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 25, 2016. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
    9. ^ U.S. News | Best States | Pennsylvania
    10. ^ “Paleoindian Period – 16,000 to 10,000 years ago”. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Retrieved December 8, 2014.
    11. ^ a b Ancient Pa. Dwelling Still Dividing Archaeologists
    12. ^ a b “Pennsylvania on the Eve of Colonization”. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Retrieved November 30, 2014.
    13. ^ “Late Woodland Period in the Susquehanna and Delaware River Valleys”. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Retrieved December 8, 2014.
    14. ^ “On the Susquehannocks: Natives having used Baltimore County as hunting grounds – The Historical Society of Baltimore County”. www.HSOBC.org. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
    15. ^ “Early Indian Migration in Ohio”. GenealogyTrails.com. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
    16. ^ Garrad, Charles “Petun and the Petuns”
    17. ^ (Extrapolation from the 16th-century Spanish, ‘Cali' ˈkali a rich agricultural area – geographical sunny climate. also 1536, Cauca River, linking Cali, important for higher population agriculture and cattle raising and Colombia's coffee is produced in the adjacent uplands. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. ‘Cali', city, metropolis, urban center. Pearson Education 2006. “Calica”, Yucatán place name called rock pit, a port an hour south of Cancún. Sp. root: “Cal”, limestone. Also today, ‘Calicuas', supporting cylinder or enclosing ring, or moveable prop as in holding a strut)
    18. ^ Paullin, Charles O.; Wright, John K. (ed.) (1932). Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States. New York and Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington and American Geographical Society. pp.Plate 42.
    19. ^ Swindler, William F., ed. (1973–1979). Sources and Documents of United States Constitutions. Vol.10. Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana Publications. pp.17–23.
    20. ^ a b Van Zandt, Franklin K. (1976). Boundaries of the United States and the Several States. Geological Survey Professional Papers. Vol.909. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. pp.74, 92.
    21. ^ Munroe, John A. (1978). Colonial Delaware: A History. Millwood, New York: KTO Press. pp.9–12.
    22. ^ Munroe, John A. (1978). Colonial Delaware: A History. Millwood, New York: KTO Press. p.16.
    23. ^ McCormick, Richard P. (1964). New Jersey from Colony to State, 1609–1789. New Jersey Historical Series, Volume 1. Princeton, New Jersey: D. Van Nostrand Company. p.12.
    24. ^ Swindler, William F., ed. (1973–1979). Sources and Documents of United States Constitutions. Vol.4. Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana Publications. pp.278–280.
    25. ^ Van Zandt, Franklin K. (1976). Boundaries of the United States and the Several States; Geological Survey Professional Paper 909. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. p.79.
    26. ^ Swindler, William F., ed. (1973–1979). Sources and Documents of United States Constitutions. Vol.6. Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana Publications. pp.375–377.
    27. ^ Farnham, Mary Frances; Compiler. (1901–1902). Farnham Papers (1603–1688). Volumes 7 and 8 of Documentary History of the State of Maine. Vol.7. Portland, Maine: Collections of the Maine Historical Society, 2nd Series. pp.311, 314.
    28. ^ Parry, Clive, ed. (1969–1981). Consolidated Treaty Series; 231 Volumes. Vol.10. Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana Publications. p.231.
    29. ^ Fernow, B., ed. (1853–1887). Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York; Volumes 12–15. Albany, New York. pp.507–508. Archived from the original on April 7, 2016. Retrieved November 4, 2019.
    30. ^ Parry, Clive, ed. (1969–1981). Consolidated Treaty Series; 231 Volumes. Vol.13. Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana Publications. p.136.
    31. ^ Fernow, B., ed. (1853–1887). Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York; Volumes 12–15. Vol.12. Albany, New York. p.515.
    32. ^ Armstrong, Edward; Editor (1860). Record of the Court at Upland, in Pennsylvania, 1676 to 1681. Memoirs of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania Volume 7. pp.119, 198.
    33. ^ Charter for the Province of Pennsylvania-1681 Archived April 28, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. This charter, granted by Charles II (England) to William Penn, constituted him and his heirs proprietors of the province, which, in honor of his father, Admiral William Penn, (whose cash advances and services were thus requited,) was called Pennsylvania. To perfect his title, William Penn purchased, on 1682-08-24, a quit-claim from the Duke of York to the lands west of the Delaware River embraced in his patent of 1664
    34. ^ Pennsylvania Society of Colonial Governors, ed. (1916). “Samuel Carpenter”. Pennsylvania Society of Colonial Governors, Volume 1. pp.180–181.
    35. ^ “Measuring Worth”. Measuring Worth. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    36. ^ a b “Quakers and the political process”. Pym.org. March 28, 2006. Archived from the original on May 24, 2008. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    37. ^ “Wales on Britannia: Facts About Wales & the Welsh”. Britannia.com. Archived from the original on February 22, 2015. Retrieved September 16, 2013. This day, my country was confirmed to me under the great seal of England, with privileges, by the name of Pennsylvania, a name the King would give it in honor of my father. I chose New Wales, being as this, a pretty, hilly country, but Penn being Welsh for head as in Penmanmoire (sic), in Wales, and Penrith, in Cumberland, and Penn, in Buckinghamshire . . . called this Pennsylvania, which is the high or head woodlands; for I proposed, when the secretary, a Welshman, refused to have it called New Wales, Sylvania and they added Penn to it, and though I opposed it and went to the King to have it struck out and altered he said it was past . . nor could twenty guineas move the under-secretary to vary the name
    38. ^ Armstrong, Edward; Editor (1860). Record of the Court at Upland, in Pennsylvania, 1676 to 1681. Vol.7. Memoirs of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. p.196.
    39. ^ Swindler, William F., ed. (1973–1979). Sources and Documents of United States Constitutions. 10 Volumes. Vol.8. Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana Publications. p.243.
    40. ^ Yount, David (2007). How the Quakers invented America. Rowman & Littlefield. p.82. ISBN978-0-7425-5833-5. Archived from the original on September 6, 2015.
    41. ^ Fisher, Sydney G. (2009). The Quaker Colonies. Echo Library. p.13. ISBN978-1-4068-5110-6. Archived from the original on March 20, 2015.
    42. ^ “Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia | Treaty of Shackamaxon”. philadelphiaencyclopedia.org.
    43. ^ “Respectfully Remembering the Affable One”. Hidden City Philadelphia.
    44. ^ Hamilton, Alexander and Syrett, Harold C. The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. 1963, page 240.
    45. ^ “An account of the remarkable occurrences in the life and travels of Colonel James Smith (Late a citizen of Bourbon County, Kentucky): during his captivity with the Indians, in the years 1755,'56, '57, '58, & '59”. Internet Archive. Lexington: John Bradford. 1799. Archived from the original on January 31, 2015. Retrieved November 16, 2014.
    46. ^ “Library of Congress timeline 1764–1765”. The Library of Congress. Memory.loc.gov. Archived from the original on July 26, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    47. ^ “Dickinson Letters”. 18thcenturyreadingroom.blogspot.com. Archived from the original on July 8, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    48. ^ “Library of Congress timeline 1773–1774”. Memory.loc.gov. Archived from the original on August 7, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    49. ^ “Library of Congress: Primary documents—The Declaration of Independence”. Loc.gov. July 20, 2010. Archived from the original on August 4, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    50. ^ At the time, Vermont has not yet seceded from New York State.
    51. ^ “Nine Capitals of the United States”. Senate.gov. March 26, 2009. Archived from the original on March 20, 2016. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    52. ^ “Constitution FAQs”. National Constitution Center. Archived from the original on June 16, 2016. Retrieved June 19, 2016.
    53. ^ “Pennsylvania ratifies the Constitution of 1787”. Memory.loc.gov. Archived from the original on August 6, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    54. ^ “Pennsylvania ratifies the Constitution”. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Archived from the original on October 13, 2017. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
    55. ^ a b “The Five Oldest Colleges in Pennsylvania”. Classroom. Retrieved February 25, 2022.
    56. ^ a b c d e “Pennsylvania's Capitals”. Legis.state.pa.us. Archived from the original on June 15, 2000. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    57. ^ Conant, Sean (2015). The Gettysburg Address: Perspectives on Lincoln's Greatest Speech. New York: Oxford University Press. p.ix. ISBN978-0-19-022745-6.
    58. ^ Holsinger, M. Paul (1999). War and American Popular Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p.102. ISBN978-0-313-29908-7.
    59. ^ “History of John Harris”. Mrs. Carlyle C. Browne (descendant of Sarah Ann Harris, fifth daughter of Alfred Bingham Harris, and granddaughter of Elisha John Harris of the Mansion, Harrisburg PA, USA). 2001. Archived from the original on April 8, 2011. Retrieved February 14, 2011.
    60. ^ “James Buchanan White House biography”. whitehouse.gov. Archived from the original on August 3, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010 – via National Archives.
    61. ^ “Battle of Gettysburg”. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009.
    62. ^ Chapter One: 1. Pennsylvania's Bosses and Political Machines. ExplorePAHistory.com. Retrieved February 18, 2022.
    63. ^ a b “Chapter 2: Pennsylvania Under the Reign of Big Business”. Explore PAHistory.com. WITF. Retrieved November 27, 2014.
    64. ^ “Overview: Labor's Struggle to Organize”. Explore PAHistory.com. WITF. Retrieved November 27, 2014.
    65. ^ “About the Area”. Archived from the original on March 14, 2012. Retrieved July 30, 2018.
    66. ^ “The National Forests of the United States” (PDF). Forest History Society. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 12, 2013. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
    67. ^ Peck, Merton J. & Scherer, Frederic M. The Weapons Acquisition Process: An Economic Analysis (1962) Harvard Business School p. 111
    68. ^ “Backgrounder on the Three Mile Island Accident”. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. June 21, 2018. Archived from the original on August 24, 2019. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
    69. ^ King, Laura; Hall, Kenji; Magnier, Mark (March 18, 2011). “In Japan, workers struggling to hook up power to Fukushima reactor”. Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on March 22, 2011. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
    70. ^ William F. Stine, “Does State Aid Stimulate Public Library Expenditures? Evidence from Pennsylvania's Enhancement Aid Program” Library Quarterly (2006) 76#1 107-139.
    71. ^ Victor M. Garcia, “The Mushroom Industry And The Emergence Of Mexican Enclaves In Southern Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1960-1990” Journal of Latino-Latin American Studies (JOLLAS) (2005) 1#4 pp 67-88.
    72. ^ Gilbert Marzan, “Still Looking for that Elsewhere: Puerto Rican Poverty and Migration in the Northeast.” Centro Journal (2009) 21#1 pp 100-117 online.
    73. ^ Ashok K. Dutt, and Baleshwar Thakur, City, Society, and Planning (Concept Publishing Company, 2007) pp. 55–56
    74. ^ Kraus, Scott. “No end in sight to Valley's population growth”. Retrieved December 1, 2014.
    75. ^ Alexander Riley, Angel patriots: The crash of United Flight 93 and the myth of America (NYU Press, 2015) pp 1–34.
    76. ^ “Tekko 2019”. About Tekko. Archived from the original on February 22, 2019. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
    77. ^ ‘They showed his photo, and my stomach just dropped': Neighbors recall synagogue massacre suspect as a loner”. Washington Post. October 28, 2018. Archived from the original on October 29, 2018. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
    78. ^ “Pennsylvania geography”. Netstate.com. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    79. ^ 2006 Statistical Abstract: Geography & Environment: Land and Land Use[dead link]
    80. ^ “Pennsylvania Time Zone”. Timetemperature.com. Archived from the original on January 9, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    81. ^ “National Park Service: Our Fourth Shore”. Cr.nps.gov. December 22, 2003. Archived from the original on May 18, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    82. ^ [1] Archived May 17, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
    83. ^ National Weather Service Corporate Image Web Team. “National Weather Service Climate”. Archived from the original on March 5, 2012. Retrieved March 7, 2012.
    84. ^ National Weather Service Corporate Image Web Team. “National Weather Service Climate”. Archived from the original on March 25, 2012. Retrieved March 7, 2012.
    85. ^ National Weather Service Corporate Image Web Team. “Climate Information—National Weather Service Central PA”. Archived from the original on July 5, 2012. Retrieved March 7, 2012.
    86. ^ National Weather Service Corporate Image Web Team. “National Weather Service Climate”. Archived from the original on July 5, 2012. Retrieved March 7, 2012.
    87. ^ National Weather Service Corporate Image Web Team. “National Weather Service Climate”. Archived from the original on June 23, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2012.
    88. ^ a b c The Pennsylvania Manual, p. 6-3.
    89. ^ a b c d e f Pennsylvania Manual, p. 6-5.
    90. ^ a b “Research Brief: The Commonwealth's Official Source for Population and Economic Statistics” (PDF). Pasdc.hbg.psu.edu. March 9, 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved June 26, 2016.
    91. ^ The Pennsylvania Manual, p. 6-46.
    92. ^ “Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places in Pennsylvania”. Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau. 2010. Archived from the original (XLS) on July 9, 2011. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
    93. ^ a b The Pennsylvania Manual, p. 6-6.
    94. ^ The Pennsylvania Manual, p. 6-22.
    95. ^ Title 302, Pennsylvania Code, Section 23.1–101.
    96. ^ “U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts”. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved September 21, 2021.
    97. ^ “Historical Population Change Data (1910–2020)”. Census.gov. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 29, 2021. Retrieved May 1, 2021.
    98. ^ “Pennsylvania QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau”. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
    99. ^ “American FactFinder—Results”. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
    100. ^ American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. “American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates”. Factfinder.census.gov. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    101. ^ “Puerto Ricans in Pennsylvania” (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on January 27, 2018. Retrieved November 8, 2011.
    102. ^ “Race and Ethnicity in the United States: 2010 Census and 2020 Census”. census.gov. United States Census Bureau. August 12, 2021. Retrieved September 26, 2021.
    103. ^ “Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States”. Census.gov. Archived from the original on July 25, 2008. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
    104. ^ “censusviewer.com”. January 11, 2014. Archived from the original on January 11, 2014.
    105. ^ 2010 Census Data. “2010 Census Data”. Census.gov. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
    106. ^ 2010 Census Data. “2010 Census Data—2010 Census”. 2010.census.gov. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved July 7, 2011.
    107. ^ “Puerto Ricans Leave N.Y. Report Tells Where They Go—Centro de Estudios Puertorriqueños”. cuny.edu. Archived from the original on July 22, 2015.
    108. ^ Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). “American FactFinder—Results”. census.gov. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved June 6, 2015.
    109. ^ “Thedailyjournal—Puerto Rico's population exodus is all about jobs”. usatoday.com. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved June 6, 2015.
    110. ^ “Annual Estimates of the Population”. Archived from the original on January 20, 2013. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    111. ^ Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). “American FactFinder—Results”. census.gov. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved June 6, 2015.
    112. ^ “Population and Population Centers by State—2000”. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 18, 2008. Retrieved December 3, 2008.
    113. ^ a b “Table 16: Resident Population by Age and State: 2010”. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 26, 2019. Retrieved April 26, 2019.
    114. ^ “Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 26, 2019.
    115. ^ “Statistics” (PDF). cdc.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 11, 2017. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
    116. ^ “Statistics” (PDF). cdc.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 14, 2017. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
    117. ^ “Statistics” (PDF). cdc.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 31, 2017. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
    118. ^ “National Vital Statistics Reports Volume 67, Number 1, January 31, 2018” (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on June 3, 2018. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
    119. ^ “Archived copy” (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on February 1, 2019. Retrieved February 21, 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    120. ^ “Data” (PDF). www.cdc.gov. Retrieved December 21, 2019.
    121. ^ “Data” (PDF). www.cdc.gov. Retrieved April 1, 2021.
    122. ^ “Data” (PDF). www.cdc.gov. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
    123. ^ a b “Pennsylvania”. Modern Language Association. Archived from the original on June 19, 2006. Retrieved August 12, 2013.
    124. ^ “Definition of “dutch”. Dictionary.reference.com. Archived from the original on April 23, 2009. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    125. ^ a b “Religious composition of adults in Pennsylvania”. Religious Landscape Study. The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. 2017. Archived from the original on October 5, 2017. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
    126. ^ “Religious diversity in Pennsylvania”. Archived from the original on February 20, 2007.
    127. ^ Arouet, François-Marie (“Voltaire”) (1733). Philosophic Letters. Republished in: Morley, John; Fleming, William F.; Smollett, Tobias, eds. (1901). The Works of Voltaire: A Contemporary Version. Vol.XXXIX: Short Studies on English and American Topics. New York: E. R. DuMont. p.209. Retrieved August 4, 2015.
    128. ^ “PRRI – American Values Atlas”. ava.prri.org. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
    129. ^ Association of Religion Data Archives (2010). “Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) States (2010)”. Association of Statisticians of American Religious Bodies. Retrieved February 4, 2021.
    130. ^ “The Association of Religion Data Archives | State Membership Report”. www.thearda.com. Archived from the original on July 21, 2015. Retrieved December 5, 2013.
    131. ^ Webb Design Inc. “Amish Country | Ohio | Visitor Information”. Visitamishcountry.com. Archived from the original on February 20, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    132. ^ “A visit to Spring Valley Bruderhof”. qcfamilytree.org. Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
    133. ^ Donald B. Kraybill and C. Nelson Hostetter: Anabaptist World USA, Scottdale, PA and Waterloo, Ontario, 2001, pages 200–201.
    134. ^ “Friends General Conference States (2010)—QuickLists—The Association of Religion Data Archives”. www.thearda.com. Archived from the original on October 29, 2016. Retrieved October 28, 2016.
    135. ^ a b “Regional Economic Accounts” (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on May 1, 2019. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
    136. ^ “Report for Selected Countries and Subjects”. www.imf.org. Archived from the original on January 31, 2018. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
    137. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on November 11, 2019. Retrieved November 11, 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    138. ^ “Appeals court races wrap up with focus on voter mobilization”. Archived from the original on January 13, 2005.
    139. ^ a b c “Fortune 500”. CNN. April 30, 2007. Archived from the original on August 22, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    140. ^ “Philadelphia stock exchange”. Phlx.com. July 23, 2010. Archived from the original on June 3, 2009. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    141. ^ Ramos, Stephanie (October 25, 2002). “Wal-Mart tops Pa. list of largest private employers”. Dailypennsylvanian.com. Archived from the original on May 3, 2012. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    142. ^ “Pennsylvania Top 50 Employers” (PDF). Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. March 28, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 7, 2011. Retrieved July 2, 2011.
    143. ^ “Pennsylvania Economy at a Glance”. bls.gov. Retrieved May 22, 2020.
    144. ^ a b “Pennsylvania GDP and Per-Capita GDP | Department of Numbers”. www.deptofnumbers.com. Archived from the original on March 17, 2018. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
    145. ^ “Pennsylvania: real GDP growth 2000–2017 | Statistic”. Statista. Archived from the original on January 12, 2019. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
    146. ^ “Notice: Data not available: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics”. data.bls.gov. Archived from the original on January 10, 2019. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
    147. ^ “Agricultural Census 2002” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 14, 2008.
    148. ^ “Pennsylvania Wine facts”. Pennsylvania Wine & Wineries. Archived from the original on February 23, 2009.[citation needed]
    149. ^ “What is PA Preferred? Just a pretty logo or a way to build a brand?”. The Patriot-News. January 8, 2014. Archived from the original on February 24, 2015. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
    150. ^ “Agribusiness”. CIDEP—Investment Attraction & Business Leads Generation. Archived from the original on September 10, 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
    151. ^ [2][dead link]
    152. ^ “Casino table games in budget debate? **Rendell won't say no, but stresses revenue wouldn't make a dent in deficit”.
    153. ^ Barnes, Tom; Rotstein, Gary (February 4, 2009). “Rendell wants legal video poker”. Post-gazette.com. Archived from the original on October 1, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    154. ^ “Rendell signs film production tax credit law”. Philadelphia Business Journal. July 21, 2004. Archived from the original on September 3, 2004. Retrieved January 30, 2016.
    155. ^ a b Jenkins Law Library. “23 Pennsylvania Law Weekly 324 (March 27, 2000)”. Jenkinslaw.org. Archived from the original on January 13, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    156. ^ J. Pomante II, Michael; Li, Quan (December 15, 2020). “Cost of Voting in the American States: 2020”. Election Law Journal: Rules, Politics, and Policy. 19 (4): 503–509. doi:10.1089/elj.2020.0666. S2CID225139517. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
    157. ^ Pennsylvania State Executive Offices Archived September 14, 2016, at the Wayback Machine“, Ballotpedia, retrieved January 23, 2019.
    158. ^ “Pennsylvania State Archives”. Phmc.state.pa.us. Archived from the original on September 14, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    159. ^ “Officers of the Senate”. Pennsylvania Senate. Archived from the original on January 24, 2019. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
    160. ^ “Officers of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives – PA House of Representatives”. Retrieved August 13, 2020.
    161. ^ a b c d e f “Judicial districts”. Aopc.org. Archived from the original on July 20, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    162. ^ “Donald Trump becomes 1st Republican to win Pennsylvania since 1988”. LancasterOnline. Associated Press. Archived from the original on November 12, 2016. Retrieved November 13, 2016.
    163. ^ “Pennsylvania Facts 2017” (PDF). Pennsylvania State Data Center Penn State Harrisburg. 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 12, 2018. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
    164. ^ “Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 2022 Voter Registration Statistics—Official May 31, 2022”. Pennsylvania Department of State.
    165. ^ “Pennsylvania Tax Rates & Rankings | PA State Taxes”. Tax Foundation. Retrieved September 28, 2020.
    166. ^ “Shale tax comes up dry for 3d year”. Articles.philly.com. July 3, 2011. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
    167. ^ “Gov Rendell says all of Pennsylvania's transit agencies will get I-80 toll $s”. TOLLROADSnews. January 6, 2010. Archived from the original on April 5, 2012. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
    168. ^ “PA Department of Revenue Homepage”. Pennsylvania Department of Revenue. Archived from the original on May 15, 2008.
    169. ^ “Personal Income Tax”. Portal.state.pa.us. Archived from the original on November 25, 2009. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    170. ^ “Local Income Tax Information”. PA Department of Community & Economic Development. Archived from the original on December 1, 2016. Retrieved November 30, 2016.
    171. ^ “Berkheimer”. Berkheimer. Archived from the original on December 1, 2016. Retrieved November 30, 2016.
    172. ^ “Keystone Collections Group”. Keystone Collections Group. Archived from the original on October 24, 2016. Retrieved November 30, 2016.
    173. ^ “Jordan Tax Service”. Jordan Tax Service. Archived from the original on December 6, 2016. Retrieved November 30, 2016.
    174. ^ “Department of Revenue”. City of Philadelphia. Archived from the original on December 1, 2016. Retrieved November 30, 2016.
    175. ^ “Taking a Closer Look at Government: Pennsylvania's Local Taxation “System”. issuespa.org. Archived from the original on December 1, 2016. Retrieved November 30, 2016.
    176. ^ “Pennsylvania's Members of Congress & Congressional District Map”. Archived from the original on March 25, 2013. Retrieved February 11, 2013.
    177. ^ “Pennsylvania”. America's Health Rankings 2013. United Health Foundation. Archived from the original on September 3, 2014. Retrieved August 28, 2014.
    178. ^ “Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE)”. Archived from the original on December 2, 2009. Retrieved December 4, 2009.
    179. ^ “Cohort Graduation Rate”. Pennsylvania Department of Education. Archived from the original on February 1, 2016. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
    180. ^ “National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)”. Archived from the original on January 16, 2011. Retrieved December 4, 2009.
    181. ^ ‘NCES'.
    182. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education: Home Education and Private Tutoring, Retrieved December 4, 2009. Archived November 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
    183. ^ “Best National University Rankings”. U.S. News & World Report. January 1, 2022. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
    184. ^ “2022 Best Global Universities Rankings”. U.S. News & World Report. January 1, 2022. Retrieved January 1, 2022.
    185. ^ “QS World University Rankings 2022”. Top Universities. January 1, 2022. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
    186. ^ “Quick Facts”. Retrieved August 13, 2020.
    187. ^ “Enrollment booming with new, returning students”. Bradenton Herald. April 8, 2011. Archived from the original on January 18, 2013. Retrieved October 9, 2012.
    188. ^ “Nation's largest medical school to open new $4M location at Seton Hill University”. Popcitymedia.com. June 25, 2008. Archived from the original on April 22, 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-26.
    189. ^ “Nation's largest medical school to open new $4M location at Seton Hill University”. April 22, 2012. Archived from the original on April 22, 2012. Retrieved August 13, 2020.
    190. ^ “History of the School”. pafa.org. Archived from the original on June 15, 2011. Retrieved April 8, 2011.
    191. ^ “About—University of the Sciences”. usciences.edu. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 8, 2011.
    192. ^ “Philadelphia Zoo”. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
    193. ^ “Houdini Harry Houdini attractions magic Scranton Poconos Pocono birthday party show seance School Assembly Programs birthday”. Houdini.org. Archived from the original on July 24, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    194. ^ a b c d Reilly, P. (November 15, 2007). “Bear facts favor Pennsylvania State remains home to North America's biggest black bears”. Intelligencer Journal. Archived from the original on November 16, 2007. Retrieved December 6, 2007.
    195. ^ a b “Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Fact Book”, p. 7.
    196. ^ “2010 Public Transportation Fact Book”, p. 8.
    197. ^ a b c d “Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Fact Book”, p. 10.
    198. ^ Waterborne Commerce Statistics Center, p. 5-4.
    199. ^ Santoni, Matthew (September 14, 2010). “Corps shuts Highland Park lock for two weeks of repairs”. Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Trib Total Media. Archived from the original on September 8, 2012. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
    200. ^ “Little League Chronology”. LittleLeague.org. Archived from the original on June 29, 2016. Retrieved August 10, 2016.
    201. ^ Bratton, Chris (October 8, 2018). “Penn FC to go on hiatus in 2019, join new USL third division league in 2020”. Brotherly Game. Archived from the original on November 30, 2018. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
    202. ^ “X Games History—part 2”. Skateboard.about.com. June 17, 2010. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    203. ^ “Panther History—Pitt Football 2006” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 25, 2011. Retrieved July 7, 2011.
    204. ^ “Recognized National Championships by Team”. Cfbdatawarehouse.com. Archived from the original on September 20, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    205. ^ “Helms Foundation NCAA Division I Champions”. Rauzulusstreet.com. Archived from the original on October 1, 2018. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    206. ^ “NCAA Division I Mens Basketball—NCAA Division I Champions”. Rauzulusstreet.com. Archived from the original on June 13, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    207. ^ New York Times, “Harry Olivieri, 90, Co-Inventor of Cheese Steak in Philadelphia, Dies” July 22, 2006 retrieved July 25, 2006″. The New York Times. July 22, 2006. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
    208. ^ “Pa. knack for snacks a Farm Show feature—Pittsburgh Tribune-Review”. Pittsburghlive.com. January 11, 2008. Archived from the original on November 8, 2009. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    209. ^ “Chocolate Bunnies”. The Southeast Missourian. Associated Press. April 1, 1996. Archived from the original on April 20, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
    210. ^ “Directions to Asher's—About Asher's”. Ashers.com. Archived from the original on October 3, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
    211. ^ “Company History: Auntie Anne's Pretzels”. Auntie Anne's. Archived from the original on January 23, 2009. Retrieved February 6, 2009.
    212. ^ “PHMC: State Symbols”. Archived from the original on May 4, 2009.
    213. ^ “Lowell Tribune, March 26, 2002”. Lowellpl.lib.in.us. Archived from the original on September 19, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    214. ^ “Lancaster rifle”. Archived from the original on April 3, 2015.
    215. ^ “PHMC: Agriculture in Pennsylvania”. Archived from the original on July 3, 2009.
    216. ^ “Home” (PDF). Department of General Services. Archived from the original on March 25, 2009.
    217. ^ Samuel, Bill. “William Penn, Quaker”. Quakerinfo.com. Archived from the original on December 13, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    218. ^ “Frame of Government”. Yale.edu. Archived from the original on June 17, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    219. ^ Pennsylvania translates to “Penn's Woods” and was named after the father of William Penn, the founder of the colony. Digital History: Persecution of the Quakers Archived April 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
    220. ^ “The Quaker Province 1681–1776”. Archived from the original on June 1, 2009.
    221. ^ “The State of Pennsylvania—An Introduction the Keystone State from”. Netstate.Com. Archived from the original on March 23, 2016. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
    222. ^ “Pennsylvania Matanzas”. U.S.-Cuba Sister Cities Association. Archived from the original on October 17, 2007. Retrieved October 27, 2007.
    223. ^ “France-Diplomatie—Atlas français de la coopération décentralisée et des autres actions extérieures” (in French). République française, ministère des affaires étrangères et européenes. Archived from the original on June 10, 2017. Retrieved January 20, 2010.

    Sources[edit]

    Web sources[edit]

    Books[edit]

    External links[edit]

    • Other British colonial entities in the contemporary United States
    • Non-British colonial entities in the contemporary United States

    Coordinates: 40°52′41″N 77°47′59″W / 40.8781°N 77.7996°W

    More

    http://ultramodern-home.ru
    Top Tourist Attractions and beautiful places in Harrisburg: Travel Guide Pennsylvania
    National Civil War Museum, Pennsylvania State Capitol, Wildwood Park, State Museum of Pennsylvania, Pride of the Susquehanna, Pennsylvania National Fire Museum, Cathedral of Saint Patrick, City Island, Susquehanna Art Museum, Fort Hunter Mansion and Park

    3 thoughts on “Top Tourist Attractions in Harrisburg: Travel Guide Pennsylvania

    1. Have direct and cheap flights to Harrisburg International Airport from the major cities of the world especially China to bring in international tourists.

    Comments are closed.